Human Body

Students study two important body systems, the digestive and urinary systems, and learn about how nutrition can positively or negatively impact our bodies through informational texts and hands-on projects.

Unit Summary

A note from our team: As part of the upgrade to Fishtank Plus, this unit will be revised this year. Some texts, materials and questions may change as part of the revision.

In this unit students study two important body systems in depth, the digestive and urinary systems. Building on what students learned in first grade, students will be challenged to think about how the human body is a miraculous machine, in particular how the digestive and urinary systems are crucial for survival, by deeply analyzing and exploring the steps in both systems. After learning about how both systems function, students will learn about nutrition and how what we eat can either positively or negatively impact the way our body functions. Students will explore what it means to eat a well-balanced meal and how added sugars are harming their bodies. It is our hope that this unit, in connection with others in the sequence, will help students build a deeper understanding of the human body and how the decisions we make daily, especially with food, can either help or harm us.

In reading, this unit builds onto skills learned in units one and two, and it is assumed that students are inquisitive consumers of text, asking and answering questions about the content they are learning as a way to deepen understanding of new material. The core text for this unit, The First Human Body Encyclopedia, was chosen because of its wide range of text features and content. While reading the encyclopedia, students should be challenged to think about how the different text features help them locate information and also how the images and diagrams help them clarify the information they are learning. Students should also be challenged to think about the connection between scientific ideas, using language that refers to cause and effect and sequence, particularly when explaining how different systems function. Finally, the idea of main topic will continue to spiral throughout this unit. Students should constantly be stopping and asking themselves, “What was the main topic of this section and how do I know?”

In writing, students will continue to focus on writing strong responses to a text. Students should be able to write solid claims and therefore will be challenged to include details that support the claim in a well-structured paragraph. The Focus Correction Areas in this unit are primarily a review and therefore students should receive targeted, individual feedback based on varying needs.

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Texts and Materials

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Core Materials

Assessment

This assessment accompanies this unit and should be given on the suggested assessment day or after completing the unit.

Unit Prep

Intellectual Prep

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Build Background Knowledge

  • Research and learn about the digestive system and urinary system. Be prepared to clarify and answer any additional questions that may arise.
  • Research and learn about the components of a healthy meal. Be prepared to explain to students the difference between carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc. Also be prepared to explain how to read calorie labels and why that is important.
  • Research and learn about added sugar and why added sugar is a problem.

Internalize the Text and Standards

  • Read all unit texts with unit essential questions and priority standards in mind.
  • Take unit assessment and notice evidence of unit priority standards and key ideas.

Essential Questions

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  • What makes the human body a “miraculous machine”?
  • Why is the digestive system crucial for survival?
  • What are the best foods to keep our body healthy?
  • What does it mean to eat a “balanced diet”?

Writing Focus Areas

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  • In units one and two students worked on stating an accurate claim that demonstrated comprehension of the text. Students were then challenged to include relevant and accurate details, facts, and other varied evidence from the text. In this unit, students will continue to refine their skills with including text evidence. Students should be challenged to include varied types of evidence, and higher students should be pushed to make sure the evidence they are including is in fact the best evidence. In unit two, students were also introduced to the idea of strong paragraphs that focus on one topic. In this unit students should be consistently writing with a paragraph structure that shows cohesion and focus. Therefore, the focus of this unit is on strengthening students’ ability to write well-focused and supported answers to questions. Because the writing focuses in this unit are a review, targeted individual feedback should be the priority of this unit.
  • Students should continue to receive weekly grammar mini-lessons and targeted feedback. The focus for this unit is on using correct end punctuation, which is often directly connected with complete sentences. Students should also begin to be challenged to use what they are learning in word study to spell grade-level words appropriately. These Focus Correction Areas should spiral across all writing blocks.

Language Focus Areas

  • uses correct end punctuation
  • spells grade-level words correctly
  • uses complete sentences
  • uses correct capitalization

Writing-About-Reading Focus Areas

  • makes an accurate claim that demonstrates comprehension of the text
  • uses relevant and accurate details, facts, and other varied evidence from the text(s)
  • groups information into a paragraph structure that introduces a topic and provides details
  • uses specific vocabulary from the text

Vocabulary

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Literary Terms

topic, facts, diagram, caption, heading, table of contents, image

Roots and Affixes

un-, re-, -ful

Text-based

body system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, respiratory system, circulatory, system, encyclopedia, absorb, digestion, physical, chemical, swallow, saliva, enzymes, intestines, absorption, vomit, contract, excess, urine, waste, thirst, automatically, nutrients, carbohydrate, protein, fat, energy, natural, prepared, label

Content Knowledge and Connections

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  • Identify the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, nervous, digestive, and excretory systems as important systems in the human body.
  • Identify important components of the digestive system and their function.
  • Describe the process of nourishing the body from the time food is taken into the mouth until waste is removed from the body.
  • Identify different components of the excretory system and their functions.
  • Explain the importance of vitamins and minerals to the body.
  • Explain the importance of eating a balanced diet.
  • Classify foods as healthy or unhealthy.
  • Plan a daily balanced diet.

Lesson Map

1

    RI.2.1

Explain what they already know about the human body, and brainstorm what they want to know by asking and answering questions in a class discussion.

2

  • Inside Your Body pp. 1 – 9

    RI.2.2

Identify and explain the different systems found in the human body and why each system is important by identifying the main topic of sections of a text.

3

  • Inside Your Body pp. 10 – 15

    RI.2.2

Identify and explain the different systems found in the human body and why each system is important by identifying the main topic of sections of a text.

4

  • First Human Body — (Preview, 10–11)

    RI.2.1

    RI.2.5

    RI.2.7

Explain what makes an encyclopedia unique and how to use an encyclopedia to answer questions about digestion by knowing and using various text features and illustrations to locate key facts and information.

5

  • First Human Body pp. 82 – 85

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

Describe how digestion happens and the role of teeth in the digestive process by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

6

  • First Human Body pp. 86 – 87

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

Describe what happens once food enters your mouth by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

7

  • First Human Body pp. 88 – 89

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

Describe what happens after food leaves the stomach by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

8

  • The Digestive System pp. 22 – 29

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

Explain what things can go wrong during digestion and why by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

9

2 days

Writing

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

    W.2.2

Explain and reteach what happens to a piece of food as it travels through the digestive system by writing a well-structured paragraph that describes the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

10

  • First Human Body pp. 90 – 91

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

Describe what happens in the urinary system by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

11

  • First Human Body pp. 92 – 93

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.7

Describe how the bladder works and why by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

12

    W.2.2

Write a book and create a poster that describes the urinary system by writing a well-structured paragraph that describes the connection between scientific concepts.

13

Writing

  • Good Enough to Eat

    RI.2.3

Describe carbohydrates, protein, fat, and vitamins and minerals and why they are important for keeping your body healthy by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

14

  • First Human Body pp. 106 – 107

    RI.2.3

    RI.2.5

    RI.2.7

Explain why the author says, “You need a variety of foods to keep your body in peak working condition” by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

15

  • Sugar, Sugar, Everywhere

    RI.2.3

Explain why the text is called Sugar, Sugar, Everywhere and why that is a problem by describing the connection between a series of scientific ideas or concepts.

16

    RI.2.7

Explain the different parts of a food label and explain if a food is healthy by analyzing and explaining specific images in a text.

17

2 days

Project

    RI.2.1

Plan a healthy and well-balanced meal by synthesizing everything learned about digestion and nutrition.

18

    SL.2.1

Debate and defend unit essential questions by stating a claim and then supporting the claim with evidence from the entire unit.

19

Assessment

Common Core Standards

Language Standards
  • L.2.1 — Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • L.2.2 — Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • L.2.4 — Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

  • L.2.6 — Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

Reading Standards for Informational Text
  • RI.2.1 — Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

  • RI.2.2 — Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

  • RI.2.3 — Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

  • RI.2.4 — Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

  • RI.2.5 — Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

  • RI.2.6 — Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  • RI.2.7 — Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

  • RI.2.10 — By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2—3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills
  • RF.2.4 — Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

Speaking and Listening Standards
  • SL.2.1 — Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

  • SL.2.6 — Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

Writing Standards
  • W.2.2 — Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

  • W.2.5 — With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

  • W.2.8 — Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.